Percutaneous nephrolithotomy is a procedure to remove kidney stones. You may need this procedure if:
- You have large kidney stones. Kidney stones that are bigger than 2 cm (0.78 in) wide may require this procedure.
- Your kidney stones are oddly shaped.
- Other treatments have not been successful in helping the kidney stones to pass.
- You have developed an infection due to the kidney stones.
Tell a health care provider about:
- Any allergies you have.
- All medicines you are taking, including vitamins, herbs, eye drops, creams, and over-the-counter medicines.
- Any problems you or family members have had with anesthetic medicines.
- Any blood disorders you have.
- Any surgeries you have had.
- Any medical conditions you have.
- Whether you are pregnant or may be pregnant.
- Whether you use any tobacco products, including cigarettes, chewing tobacco, or e-cigarettes.
- Bleeding. This may include blood in your urine.
- Allergic reactions to medicines.
- Damage to other structures or organs.
- Kidney damage.
- Holes in the kidney. These often heal on their own.
- Numbness or tingling in the affected area.
- Follow instructions from your health care provider about eating or drinking restrictions.
- Ask your health care provider about:
- Changing or stopping your regular medicines. This is especially important if you are taking diabetes medicines or blood thinners.
- Taking medicines such as aspirin and ibuprofen. These medicines can thin your blood. Do not take these medicines before your procedure unless directed by your health care provider.
- Plan to have someone take you home after the procedure.
- If you go home right after the procedure, plan to have someone with you for 24 hours.
- You may have tests, including:
- Blood tests.
- Urine tests.
- Tests to check how your heart is working.
- Ask your health care provider how your surgical site will be marked or identified.
- You may be given antibiotic medicine to help prevent infection.
What Happens During The Procedure?
- An IV tube will be inserted into one of your veins.
- You will be given one or more of the following:
- A medicine to help you relax (sedative).
- A medicine to numb the area (local anesthetic).
- A medicine to make you fall asleep (general anesthetic).
- A medicine that is injected into your spine to numb the area below and slightly above the injection site (spinal anesthetic).
- A medicine that is injected into an area of your body to numb everything below the injection site (regional anesthetic).
- A thin tube (catheter) will be put in your bladder to drain urine during and after the procedure.
- Your surgeon will make a small cut (incision) in your lower back.
- A tube will be inserted through the incision into your kidney.
- Each kidney stone will be removed through this tube. Larger stones may need to be broken up with a high-intensity light beam (laser) or other tools.
- If a kidney stone left the kidney, your surgeon will bring it back to the kidney and then remove it through the tube.
- After all of the stones have been removed, a kidney drain tube will be put in. This will help to drain any fluid that builds up while your kidney heals.
- Part of the incision may be closed with stitches (sutures).
- A bandage (dressing) will be placed over the incision area.
Post Procedure Care
- Your blood pressure, heart rate, breathing rate, and blood oxygen level will be monitored often until the medicines you were given have worn off.
- You may be given medicine for pain.
- You will be encouraged to walk. Walking helps to prevent blood clots.
- You may be taught breathing exercises.
- Do not drive for 24 hours if you received a sedative.
This information is not intended to replace advice given to you by your health care provider.